How to Become a Biologist in India

Do you know Dr M.S. Swaminathan? He is known as the “Father of the Green Revolution in India” for his work in improving agricultural productivity in India. Dr JC Bose, a pioneer in biology, proved that plants are alive just like us. There are several such examples. If you want to be like them, this blog is for you.

A biologist is a scientist who studies living organisms and their interactions with the environment. Biologists may specialise in ecology, genetics, physiology, microbiology, biochemistry, etc. They advance scientific knowledge, develop sustainable food systems, protect the environment, and contribute to technological advancements. Biologists are critical in finding solutions to some of our most pressing challenges. The recent pandemic provides the best examples. 

In this blog, we will cover the following:

  • How do biologists differ from Doctors?
  • What does a biologist do?
  • Types of Biologists
  • Path to follow
  • Scope

How do biologists differ from Doctors?

A biologist is like a nature detective who studies plants, animals, and other living things to determine how they work and interact with their environment. They might research anything from how cells grow and divide to how different species of animals live together in the wild. Biologists might work in labs, go to the field to collect data or teach others about biology. 

On the other hand, a doctor is like a superhero who helps people stay healthy and fight off sickness. They’re experts in the human body and how it works, and they use this knowledge to diagnose and treat all kinds of illnesses and injuries. Doctors typically work in hospitals, clinics, or private practices, interacting with patients and other healthcare professionals. They may diagnose and treat medical conditions, prescribe medications, perform surgeries, and provide preventative care. If you want to be a doctor in India, check out this blog.

What does a biologist do?

A biologist’s work is diverse and multi-faceted, encompassing many areas of study and research. Whether working in a laboratory, field, or classroom, biologists are essential in advancing our understanding of the natural world and promoting conservation and environmental protection. 

To be successful in their work, biologists must have a deep understanding of the scientific method and research techniques, as well as a strong foundation in biology and related fields. They must be skilled in data analysis and interpretation and have strong critical thinking and problem-solving abilities. They must also communicate their findings and ideas effectively in writing and presentations.

Here are a few aspects of their work:

Research (and Academia):-

One key aspect of a biologist’s work is research. Biologists may work in laboratories or out in the field, studying organisms and their behaviours to understand their biology better. They may collect samples, analyse data, and conduct experiments to investigate topics such as genetics, virology, ecology, or evolutionary biology.

In addition to research, biologists may also be involved in teaching and education. They may work as professors, teaching students about biology at the high school, undergraduate, or graduate levels. They may also develop and design curricula, create educational materials, and mentor students in their research.

Environmental Heroes:-

Another critical aspect of a biologist’s work is conservation and environmental protection. Biologists may work for government agencies or non-profit organisations, developing and implementing policies to protect and preserve endangered species and ecosystems. They may also work to address environmental issues such as pollution or climate change, studying the impact of human activity on the natural world and developing solutions to mitigate these impacts.

Dr Madhav Gadgil, an ecologist and environmental activist, has worked to promote sustainable development in India and advocated for protecting India’s natural resources, particularly its forests and biodiversity.

Science Communication:-

Biologists may also be involved in scientific outreach and communication, working to educate the public about the importance of biology and the natural world. They may write popular science books, create educational videos or podcasts, or participate in community outreach events to share their research and knowledge with the public.

Types of Biologists:

There are several types of biologists, each with its own area of specialisation and focus. Here are some of the most common types of biologists:

  • Microbiologists: Microbiologists study microorganisms, such as bacteria, viruses, and fungi. They investigate their structure, function, behaviour, and interactions with other organisms and the environment. Microbiologists work in various settings, including research labs, hospitals, and public health agencies.
  • Molecular biologists: Molecular biologists study the structure and function of molecules within cells, including DNA, RNA, and proteins. They use techniques such as gene editing and recombinant DNA technology to manipulate these molecules and study their effects on cellular processes. Molecular biologists often work in research labs or biotech companies.
  • Cell biologists: Cell biologists study the structure and function of cells, including their organelles and other internal systems. They investigate how cells communicate with each other and how they respond to stimuli from the environment. Cell biologists often work in research labs, hospitals, or academic institutions.
  • Developmental biologists: Developmental biologists study how organisms grow and develop, from embryonic development to adult form. They investigate how genes and environmental factors influence the development of organisms and how mutations or abnormalities can lead to developmental disorders. Developmental biologists often work in research labs or academic institutions.
  • Evolutionary biologists: Evolutionary biologists study how species evolve and change over time. They investigate the mechanisms of natural selection, adaptation, genetic drift, the fossil record, and comparative anatomy. Evolutionary biologists often work in academic institutions or research labs.
  • Ecology and environmental biologists: Ecology and environmental biologists study the interactions between organisms and their environment, including ecosystems, populations, and individual organisms. They investigate how human activities, such as climate change and habitat destruction, impact the environment and the organisms that live within it. Ecology and environmental biologists often work in research labs, government agencies, or conservation organisations.
  • Biomedical researchers: Biomedical researchers study disease mechanisms and develop new treatments and therapies. They investigate the molecular and cellular basis of diseases and develop drugs, vaccines, and other medical interventions to treat them. Biomedical researchers often work in research labs, hospitals, or biotech companies.
  • Wildlife biologists: Wildlife biologists study wild animals’ behaviour, ecology, and conservation. They investigate how animals interact with their environment and with each other and develop strategies to protect and conserve wildlife populations. Wildlife biologists often work in government agencies, research labs, or conservation organisations.

These are just a few examples of the many different types of biologists. Depending on their area of specialisation, biologists may work in various settings, including academic institutions, research labs, government agencies, or non-profit organisations.

Path to Follow:

If you want to become a biologist in India, there are several steps you can follow. Some of them are given below:

  • Complete a Bachelor’s degree in Biology or a related field. Many universities in India offer Bachelor of Science (B.Sc.) programs in Biology, typically taking three years to complete. During this time, you will take courses in various areas of biology, such as genetics, microbiology, ecology, and evolution. You will also be able to participate in laboratory work and research projects.             
  • After completing your Bachelor’s degree, you can pursue a Master’s degree in Biology or a related field. Many universities in India offer Master of Science (M.Sc.) programs in Biology, which typically take two years to complete. There are integrated BS-MS programs too, which typically take five years to complete. During this time, you can specialise in a particular area of biology, such as marine biology, plant biology, or animal behaviour. You will also have the opportunity to conduct independent research under the guidance of a faculty member.
  • If you are interested in pursuing a career in research or academia, you may consider pursuing a PhD in Biology or a related field. Many universities in India offer PhD programs in Biology, which typically take four to five years to complete. During this time, you will conduct independent research and make significant contributions to the field of biology. 

In addition to pursuing a PhD in Biology, you can consider further education in related fields such as biotechnology, bioinformatics, or environmental science. These fields are closely related to biology and can open up additional career opportunities.

  • It is also essential to gain practical experience in the field of biology. You can do this by participating in internships or volunteer programs at research institutions or conservation organisations. You can also apply for research internships or fellowships from government agencies or non-profit organisations. This will allow you to gain hands-on experience working with living organisms and conducting research projects.
  • It is essential to stay up-to-date with the latest developments in biology. You can attend conferences, read scientific journals, and follow scientific blogs and websites. This will help you stay informed about new research findings and emerging trends in biology. Building a professional network can be helpful in your pursuit of a career in biology. You can also join professional organisations such as the Indian Society of Biological Sciences or the Indian Society of Cell Biology to connect with other professionals and stay up-to-date with the latest developments in the field.
  • Many colleges provide various courses in Biology, and the choice of college varies as per your field of interest. A few such colleges are: 
  1. Indian Institute of Science Education and Research (IISERs) 
  2. National Institute of Science Education and Research (NISER)
  3. Indian Institute of Science (IISc)
  4. Few IITs like IIT-Delhi, IIT-Bombay, IIT-Kanpur, etc
  5. Jawaharlal Nehru University, Delhi
  6. St. Xavier’s College, Mumbai


Several career options are available for biologists in India, including research and development, teaching, healthcare, conservation, and environmental management. You can work for government agencies, research institutions, pharmaceutical companies, biotech companies, universities, or non-profit organisations. The demand for biologists is expected to grow in the coming years, with a particular emphasis on research and development in areas such as biotechnology, genomics, and synthetic biology.

In the public sector, biologists can work in government research organisations such as the Indian Council of Agricultural Research (ICAR), the Council of Scientific and Industrial Research (CSIR), the Indian Council of Medical Research (ICMR), and the National Institute of Oceanography (NIO), among others.

In the private sector, biologists can work in various industries, such as pharmaceuticals, biotechnology, food processing, and environmental consulting. Biologists can also work as science communicators, writers, and educators in museums, science centres, and science media.

The salary and benefits of a biologist in India vary depending on their level of education, experience, and type of employer. Biologists with a bachelor’s degree typically earn a starting salary of around INR 2-4 lakhs per annum, while those with a master’s or doctoral degree can earn a starting salary of around INR 4-10 lakhs per annum. In addition to the salary, biologists may receive benefits such as health insurance, retirement plans, and paid time off. Biologists working in the public sector may also be eligible for government benefits such as housing, transportation, and medical facilities.



Overall, biologists in India have many career options and can significantly contribute to society through their work. With a growing number of diseases and emphasis on healthcare, there will likely be many opportunities for biology in the coming years. With proper guidance and dedication, you can also contribute significantly to the field of biology. 

If you are confused about choosing AIIMS or IISERs, check out this blog.

About us – SciAstra guides students who want to become scientists and pursue research by helping them secure admissions to top colleges like IISER, NISER, CEBS, ICAR, CMI, etc.

Our mentors are from the top research institutes like IISER, NISER, IACS, CMI, ISI, IISC Bangalore, and so on. If you are looking to prepare for IAT / NEST 2023, you can check out our courses and get access to live classes, recorded lectures, study material, mock tests, doubt-clearing classes, and much more!

To know more about us, click here OR download the SciAstra App from Play Store!

Leave a Comment

Your email address will not be published. Required fields are marked *